Dealing With Import Cycles in Go

Go doesn’t allow import cycles to occur. If there are any import cycles detected, it throws a compile time error. Generally import cycles are considered as a bad design.
I recently came across such a situation when I wrote a test case to test my models, my config package that returned a db connection was dependent on model and the controller created a connection of type gorp.DbMap and passed it to each call in the model. This works fine, but the issue was when I wrote a test case, I had to create one such connection and pass it to my model methods and since Go asks me to create the tests in the same package, it caused a import cycle.
Import cycles are caused when a package ‘a’ depends on ‘b’ and ‘b’ in turn depends on ‘a’. Following Go code illustrates the classic problem of import cycle, AKA dependency cycle.

package a

import (
  "fmt"

  "github.com/mantishK/dep/b"
)

type A struct {
}

func (a A) PrintA() {
  fmt.Println(a)
}

func NewA() *A {
  a := new(A)
  return a
}

func RequireB() {
  o := b.NewB()
  o.PrintB()
}

package b

import (
  "fmt"

  "github.com/mantishK/dep/a"
)

type B struct {
}

func (b B) PrintB() {
  fmt.Println(b)
}

func NewB() *B {
  b := new(B)
  return b
}

func RequireA() {
  o := a.NewA()
  o.PrintA()
}

This results in the following error during compile time:

import cycle not allowed
package github.com/mantishK/dep/a
  imports github.com/mantishK/dep/b
  imports github.com/mantishK/dep/a

How do we avoid this?

The problem:

A depends on B 
B depends on A

In order to avoid the cyclic dependency, we must introduce an interface in a new package say i. This interface will have all the methods that are in struct A and are accessed by struct B.

package i

type Aprinter interface {
  PrintA()
}

By doing so, we can make the package b to import i rather than a. Now, package b looks like this:

package b

import (
  "fmt"

  "github.com/mantishK/dep/i"
)


func RequireA(o i.Aprinter) {
  o.PrintA()
}

This still doesn’t solve the problem completely, we still need an instance of struct A in the methods of struct B. To solve this we need another package, say c. Package c will import both a and b, it creates an instance of a and passes it to b.

package c

import (
  "github.com/mantishK/dep/a"
  "github.com/mantishK/dep/b"
)

func PrintC() {
  o := a.NewA()
  b.RequireA(o)
}

The cycle is broken, yet the functionality is achieved.

A depends on B
B depends on I
C depends on A and B

Problem solved !!
Check out this code on Github

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